venus_in_winterBess of Hardwick, who was born in 1527 and died in 1608, lived through the greatest period of religious turbulence in the history of England. One of the biggest changes to take place during the English Reformation was the introduction of the Book of Common Prayer, which set forth for the first time the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, Holy Communion, and the orders for baptism, confirmation, marriage, “prayers to be said with the sick,” and funerals.

Much of the language of the Book of Common Prayer is so familiar that it seems that it must have existed forever:

“Our Father which art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name…Give us this day our daily bread…forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us.”

“Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife?”

“With this ring I thee wed.”

Yet before the first edition of the Book of Common Prayer was published in 1549, none of these words had been spoken before, and for centuries, people in England had worshipped and been christened, married, and buried with services in Latin.

Writing Venus in Winter, my novel about Bess of Hardwick, made me think about how striking it must have been to hear as new the words we know so well.

Bess was married for the first time in 1543 and for the second time in 1547. It was only with her third marriage, to Sir William St. Loe, in 1559, that she would have spoken the vows that are still used today:  “I take thee to my wedded husband, to have and to hold from this day forward, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love, cherish, and obey, til death us depart.”

It’s hard to imagine now that the simple and beautiful language of the prayer services could have been contentious, but on the very day that Bess was giving birth to her second child, Temperance, June 10, 1549, riots were breaking out across England, partly as the result of the introduction of the Book of Common Prayer, which was such a radical break from centuries of tradition.

Not until Bess buried her third husband would she have heard, and perhaps drawn some comfort from the powerful words, “I am the resurrection and the life, sayeth the Lord. He that believeth in me, yea, though he were dead, yet shall he live.” I have Bess reflect that just as the Book of Common Prayer reminds us that “In the midst of life, we be in death,” so too in the midst of death we are in life.

When Mary Tudor succeeded to the throne, she returned England to Catholicism, and services were once more in Latin. But in 1559, Queen Elizabeth brought back the Book of Common Prayer, with a few modifications. A revised version came out in 1604 under James I (who was also responsible for the King James Bible). Not until 1662 was there another major revision, and that book remains the official prayer book of the Church of England, and is still in common use throughout the English-speaking world.

Please visit Gillian’s website, Facebook Page, and Twitter feed for more on her books and upcoming events.


venus_in_winterAround the time she was twelve years old, Bess Hardwick was sent to be a lady in waiting to Anne Gainsford, Lady Zouche, at Codnor Castle, about twelve miles from her home in Derbyshire.

It was common for well-born girls and boys to be “put out” in this way and live in the households of people higher up the social scale, frequently relatives. These young people were not servants as we think of them. The girls served as ladies in waiting, and performed such duties as helping their mistress dress, mending clothes, writing letters, or helping amuse the children. Boys began as pages, carrying messages and running errands, and rose to become gentlemen ushers, who helped serve during the enormously ceremonial meals, or performed other non-menial tasks.

The purpose of this kind of service was to learn how to behave in good society, to develop relationships with people who could help the young people rise in the world, and to meet potential mates. Acquaintance with and the ability to call on the support of more powerful people meant everything when extended networks of family connections and personal relationships were even more important than now.

Bess of Hardwick met her first husband, Robert Barlow, another distant relative, because he was also serving the Zouches. She met her wealthy and well-placed second husband, Sir William Cavendish, through Frances Brandon Grey, the Marchioness of Dorset, who she attended after leaving Lady Zouche. Sir William’s older brother George had served in the household of Cardinal Wolsey and then that of Thomas Cromwell, and it’s likely that William followed him into Wolsey’s service before joining Cromwell’s household.

Under Cromwell, William Cavendish was very much involved in Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries, visiting, auditing, and accepting the assets of many religious houses. The job made him a wealthy man. By the time he married Bess, he was the treasurer of the King’s Chamber and the Court of General Surveyors, a member of Henry VIII’s privy council, had recently been knighted, and was the auditor to Edward Seymour, the Earl of Hertford.

Seymour, the brother of the late Queen Jane Seymour, was a powerful patron. He became Lord Protector of the young Edward VI after Henry VIII died, and essentially ruled England—that is, until he was ousted and executed in one of the many deadly shifts of power that occurred during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs.

This kind of patronage extended in layers all the way to the top of the social ladder. Bess was distantly related to Sir George Zouche and his wife, whom she served. Lady Zouche had been a lady in waiting to Anne Boleyn as early as 1528, and later served Jane Seymour. Sir George was an equerry in Anne Boleyn’s household (and may well have met his wife there), and in about 1540 he attained the prestigious position of Gentleman Pensioner to Henry VIII.

Bess of Hardwick is an outstanding example of how successful service in noble households could be. With each marriage, she rose higher in society and became acquainted with more influential people. With each widowhood, she became more wealthy. After her fourth husband died, she was the richest and most powerful woman in England after Queen Elizabeth. Her position enabled successive generations to rise even higher. Her daughter Elizabeth Cavendish married Charles Stuart, the Earl of Lennox, brother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who married Mary Queen of Scots. Bess’s granddaughter from this match, Arbella Stuart, was a potential successor to the throne, though ultimately she lost that chance to her cousin James, the Scottish queen’s son. Still, it was a spectacular rise for the Hardwick family from the genteel poverty into which Bess had been born.

Please visit Gillian’s website, Facebook Page, and Twitter feed for more on her books and upcoming events.

venus_in_winterBess of Hardwick is probably best known for having survived four husbands, and for having built the grand house about which Robert Cecil famously quipped, “Hardwick Hall? More window than wall.”  But in an age when women rarely wielded much power or had control of their own money, Bess not only built from the ground up the forty-six room house that was then referred to as New Hardwick Hall, she also converted her childhood home, Hardwick Manor, into a grand edifice known as Old Hardwick Hall; built Chatsworth House, still the seat of her descendants the Dukes of Devonshire; and carried out extensive improvements to several other houses that she and her husbands owned.

Bess’s third husband, Sir William St. Loe, addressed her fondly in a letter as “chief overseer of my works,” and she was that. In those days there were no architects as we know the term, but a master builder would be responsible for the design of a house. Bess worked with Robert Smythson, a master stonemason who also designed Longleat, on building Hardwick. But on that project as well as Chatsworth, she personally oversaw armies of masons, carpenters, sculptors, plasterers, painters, glaziers, and other tradesmen and artisans. She employed some of them for years or even decades. The account books for the building of the new Hardwick Hall list more than 375 men, many of whom had also worked on Chatsworth.

In December, 1551, Bess and her second husband Sir William Cavendish paid master mason Roger Worde twenty shillings to design a house at Chatsworth. They were living in part of the new house by 1554, though construction wasn’t fully complete until more than thirty years later. Bess’s house doesn’t exist as she knew it because of extensive rebuilding in 1687-1707 by her descendant William Cavendish, the first Duke of Devonshire, which resulted in the elegant and imposing house that visitors can still see today.

But Hardwick Hall remains as Bess built it. She didn’t begin the project until after the death of her fourth husband, George Talbot, the Sixth Earl of Shrewsbury. She had great ambitions when she built the house, because her granddaughter Arbella Stuart was a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth, and she made bold architectural choices that set the place apart from its contemporaries, most notably the vast windows, produced by her own glassworks.

Bess moved into the house amid great festivities on October 4, 1597, which her biographer Mary Lovell believes was Bess’s seventieth birthday. Arbella didn’t succeed to the throne, but Bess became the wealthiest and most powerful woman in England next to the queen, and through her six children that survived to adulthood, she is the ancestor of numerous noble lines in Britain, including the Dukedoms of Devonshire, Norfolk, Somerset, and Newcastle; the Earls of Lincoln, Portsmouth, Kellie, and Pembroke; the Baron Waterpark; and the current queen. Princes William and Henry are descended from Bess on both sides, so it seems likely that Bess’s progeny will occupy the throne for a very long time.

Visit Gillian Bagwell’s website for more on her books and upcoming events.